X
تبلیغات
آموزش زبان انگلیسی

Reading Comprehension Tests for ESL/EFL Students: A Survey  

 


You are invited to participate in this survey. The survey is specifically for English as a second/foreign language learners, their teachers and parents. The survey is part of an Action Research Project on improving ESL/EFL students' achievements on reading comprehension tests. Approximately 1500 people will be asked to complete the survey. It will take less than 5 minutes to complete the questionnaire.

Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There are no foreseeable risks associated with this project. However, if you feel uncomfortable answering any questions, you can withdraw from the survey at any point. Your opinions are very important to the project.

Your survey responses will be stricly confidential and data from this research will be reported only in the aggregate. Your information will be coded and will remain confidential. If you have questions at any time about the survey or the procedures, you may send a message to Nellie Deutsch (nelliemuller@yahoo.com).

Thank you very much for your time and support. Please start with the survey now by clicking on the Continue button below.

You will be redirected to Nellie's English Projects at the end of the survey.

 

 

1.   

 

School *

 

 

2.  

 

Who are you? *

 

 

3.   

 

These questions apply to ESL/EFL students taking reading comprehension tests in English. Please choose one answer only. *

 

 

4.  

 

I understand what is expected of me when I do a reading comprehension test. *

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

5.   

 

I understand the main idea of the text. *

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

6.   

 

I can find supporting ideas for the main idea of the text. *

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

7.   

 

I understand the test questions. *

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

8.   

 

I can focus on the questions and find the answers.

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

9.   

 

I apply reading strategies such as KWL, scanning, and other skills when taking a reading comprehension test. *

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

10.   

 

I pass (55 and up) most of my reading comprehension tests. *

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

11.   

 

My marks are improving in reading comprehension tests. *

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

12.   

 

I feel fine during a reading comprehension test in English. *

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

13.   

 

I feel relaxed during a reading comprehension test. *

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

14.   

 

I use relaxation exercises and techniques to help me relax when taking reading comprehension tests. *

 

 Yes

 No

 Undecided

 

15.  

 

How do you feel when you find out you are going to have a reading comprehension test (unseen) in English? *

 

 I feel uncomfortable.

 I don't like it.

 I feel fine.

 I think about failing the test.

 

16.   

 

What do you do after you find out?

 

 I start preparing for the test.

 I don't do anything.

 I tell my parents about it.

 I try to forget about it.

 

17.   

 

How do you feel on the day of the test?

 

 I have a stomach ache.

 I feel fine.

 I don't want to go to school.

 I feel uncomfortable.

 

18.   

 

How do you feel while you are waiting for the test paper?

 

 I feel fine.

 I feel uncomfortable.

 I feel that I don't know anything.

 I know I am going to do well.

 

19.   

 

What do you do when you receive the test paper?

 

 I check to see how many questions there are.

 I look around the classroom at the other students.

 I start the test.

 I don't do anything.

 

20.   

 

What thoughts do you have during the test?

 

 I wish I had prepared myself better.

 I won't have enough time.

 I am doing great.

 I wish I could be somewhere else.

 

21.   

 

What happens after a reading comprehension test (unseen) ?

 

 I feel fine.

 I feel that I could have done better.

 I feel that I needed more time.

 I don't think about the test when I finish it.

 

22.   

 

what happens when you get home ?

 

 I talk with my parents about the test.

 I talk to my friends about how I did.

 I go about my usual routine.

 I keep thinking about the test.

 

23.   

 

How do you feel the day you get your test back?

 

 I worry about the grade I will receive.

 I am fine.

 I don't want to see my test.

 I don't feel comfortable.

 

24.   

 

It's important to do well on reading comprehension (unseen) tests in English.

 

 Because English is a very important subject.

 Because my parents expect me to do well.

 Because it shows my knowledge of English.

 I don't think it shows my knowledge of English.

 

25. These questions are for parents of ESL/EFL learners. 

 

How do you react when you find out that your son/daughter is going to have an English test? *

 

 I suggest tutoring lessons.

 I feel anxious.

 I ask what the test is going to be on.

 I don't react.

 

26.   

 

 

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

English is a very important language. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27.   

 

 

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

English reading comprehension tests are too difficult for my daughter/son. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28.   

 

 

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

My daughter/son gets anxious when there is a reading comprehension test in school.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29.   

 

 

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

My daughter/son doesn't have the skills and strategies on how to take ESL reading comprehension tests.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30.   

 

 

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Reading strategies would improve reading comprehension in English. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31.   

 

 

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Stress management and relaxation exercises would improve student performance on reading comprehension tests. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32.   

 

 

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

High scores on reading comprehension tests are very important. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33. These questions are for ESL/EFL teachers.  

 

 

Strongly Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

ESL/EFL students are anxious during reading comprehension tests in English. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESL/EFL students would benefit from reading strategies on how to take reading comprehension tests. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESL/EFL students would benefit from relaxation exercises before reading comprehension tests. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESL/EFL students would benefit from learning how to manage test anxiety. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESL/EFL teachers should teach stress management and relaxation skills. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESL/EFL teachers should do relaxation exercises with their students before a reading comprehension test. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESL/EFL teachers should teach reading strategies and skills. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESL/EFL teachers should use supportive language techniques to raise their students' self esteem before a reading comprehension test. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is the up to first language teachers to teach reading strategies and not ESL/EFL teachers. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESL/EFL students don't need reading strategies to do a reading comprehension test in English. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34.   

 

 

Most

Some

Many

None

A few

--------------of my ESL/EFL students are/were anxious during reading comprehension tests. *

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ نوشته شده توسط حامد قائمی در Sun 26 Sep 2010 و ساعت 7:34 PM |

    99 Ways to Improve Your Students’ Reading Comprehension

 

1.     Have word walls; keep them fresh and attractive

2.     Give a preview of the reading material

3.     Call attention to chapter headings and sub-headings

4.     Call attention to end-of-chapter questions

5.     Ask for summaries (gateway skill)

6.     Pronounce new vocabulary

7.     Have students pronounce new vocabulary

8.     Practice skimming

9.     Practice scanning

10.                        Practice close reading and re-reading

11.                        Use sustained silent reading

12.                        Read aloud

13.                        Encourage making connections between self and text

14.                        Summon prior knowledge

15.                        Use graphic organizers

16.                        Encourage students to generate their own graphic organizers

17.                        Teach word components

18.                        Use annotations

19.                        Encourage the habit of noticing text patterns

20.                        Use supportive visuals on the Internet

21.                        Have a “readable” room, with helpful words and visuals

22.                         Use writing to support reading; reading to support writing

23.                        Provide study guides

24.                        Provide alternate readings and simplified versions to scaffold

25.                        Encourage the creation of visuals (“draw what you’ve read”)

26.                        Reinforce subject-to-subject connections in vocabulary

27.                        Give students opportunities to talk about what they’ve read

28.                        Provide various genres

29.                        Encourage paraphrase

30.                        Encourage integration of text with graphs, charts, tables

31.                        Encourage reading in phrases and groups, not single words

32.                        Read key parts first

  1. Encourage awareness of strategies (BEFORE: summon prior knowledge, establish a purpose, preview; DURING: visualize, re-read as necessary, look for the pattern, make connections; AFTER: think, talk, write, summarize, outline)
  2. Make students aware of their unique reading needs
  3. Develop reading habits
  4. Ritualize the reading process
  5. Build awareness of trouble spots
  6. Teach how the text is organized
  7. Encourage self-monitoring for comprehension
  8. Make the abstract more concrete for students
  9. Encourage readers to anticipate
  10. Encourage note-taking on readings
  11. Set time in class to develop a weekly reading budget
  12. Hold students accountable for reading
  13. Give alternative assessments
  14. Teach that every sentence delivers new information or re-caps
  15.  Provide large print and other more reader-friendly presentations
  16. Provide Internet resources to supply background information
  17. Give the necessary background information
  18. Teach vocabulary implicitly and explicitly
  19. Make connections between English and the Latin-based languages (Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese)
  20.  Encourage students to keep personal reading journals
  21. Teach that words have multiple meanings, but that their meanings are usually related
  22. Teach that not all text is to be read at the same pace
  23.  Assign meaning-making activities following reading
  24.  Encourage visualization (mental movies)
  25.  Teach students to view reading from the writer’s perspective
  26. Teach students to group information into larger and larger groups
  27. Use the Golden Oldies: SQ3R and KWL
  28. Encourage outlining
  29. Build a classroom library consisting of multileveled, diverse reading materials to scaffold the textbook and provide background knowledge
  30. Use your classroom website as an online classroom library
  31. Join your professional organization and keep informed about literacy development
  32. If you teach English, supplement fiction with non-fiction; if you teach a subject other than English, supplement informational text with literature
  33. Familiarize yourself with the reading that your students are doing in other subject areas so that you can make connections
  34. Provide multiple exposures to new vocabulary
  35. Capitalize on the relationship between reading, writing, listening, and speaking
  36. Understand that comprehension is the active process of extracting meaning from text, not just word-calling (decoding)
  37. Reveal your own thinking as a reader
  38. Encourage students to say “This reminds me of…” as they read
  39. Encourage students to look for repetition in text because repetition signals main ideas
  40. Encourage students to think of reading as a before, during, and after process
  41. Build on strengths—your own and that of your students
  42. Consider offering students choices in reading material
  43. Be enthusiastic about school-wide reading initiatives
  44. Set forth a purpose for reading (What am I looking for?)
  45. Increase, support, and value time-on-text in class
  46. Understand that reading comprehension is the result of the integration of prior knowledge with new knowledge offered in text
  47. Offer crossword puzzles that use subject area terminology
  48. Set up cooperative learning groups to work through challenging text
  49. Understand that sentence length affects readability
  50. Understand that pre-Twentieth Century language is probably very challenging for most students. Provide scaffolding.
  51. Understand that deficient readers tend to misread the middle of words, resulting in their thinking that words with similar beginnings and endings are the same.
  52.  When introducing a new word, use it to teach a cluster of words that would be used along with it
  53. Teach the many different forms (morphology)  a new word
  54. Use your library-media specialist as a resource to help you locate various versions of your targeted information
  55. Use your reading specialist and special education teachers to help you understand more about your text and your students’ reading strengths and needs
  56. Help students pinpoint the place in the text in which their comprehension broke down
  57. Understand that improvement in reading comprehension will result from a combination of practice, explicit instruction, and building of background knowledge
  58. Treat reading for what it is: a complex mental, metacognitive, and social activity
  59. Understand that improvement in reading comprehension results from instruction that is embedded in authentic reading tasks, rather than isolated drill and practice in text that is unrelated to what the student needs to know
  60. Understand that the language used in classrooms may differ markedly from a student’s home and street language
  61.  Act on the fact that your students’ ability to comprehend text in your subject area is unlikely to improve without your intervention
  62. If your course ends in a standardized test, familiarize your students with the appearance, structure, phraseology, and vocabulary of that test
  63. Help students connect pronouns to their referents, esp. it, that, which, they
  64. Define what you think may be new words as you speak
  65. Practice “gradual release of responsibility” to make students independent readers
  66. Build awareness that successful readers are problem-solvers who give themselves the environment and support systems that they need to make meaning from text: Reading comprehension results from intentional behaviors, not luck.

 

99.                        Assume that success is possible!!

 

 

 

 


A Tale of Two Principals[1]

High School A

High School B

 “A new high school principal…gave back to teachers time formerly used for Sustained Silent Reading. He warned teachers that students should be ‘focused on the instruction at hand’ rather than ‘sitting around reading’ during class time. …the principal explained, ‘Students have to be taught. We need more time focused on direct instruction.’

   During the next two years, book circulation at the high school library plummeted, and the school’s overall achievement on the content standards tests declined.  Teachers understood why taking away students’ time to ‘just read ‘might have resulted in a decline in reading scores, but they were shocked that scores sagged in history and science as well. “

“Principal Doug Williams, a former math teacher…announced to the faculty of Hoover High School, ‘If we are going to teach our students to read, we need to provide them with opportunities to read.’ He allocated 20 minutes each day for Sustained Silent Reading and provided his staff with the resources and professional development necessary to ensure that students had time to read books of their choice.

    “The result? Hoover has met state accountability targets, and students’ average reading level as measured by the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test has risen from 4.3 to 7.2. Although the independent reading initiative cannot take full credit for this, Hoover teachers credit the Sustained Silent Reading time with a significant portion of the increased achievement.

 

 



[1] Gay Ivey and Douglas Fisher. “Learning From What Doesn’t Work.” The Best of Educational Leadership 2005-2006. 7.

+ نوشته شده توسط حامد قائمی در Sun 26 Sep 2010 و ساعت 7:23 PM |
 

What is Reading Comprehension? Three Points of View

Dr. Kathryn S. Hawes

Abstract

Cognitive psychologists, English literature professors, and reading methods professors debate the issues of comprehension's definition, process, and product.  Although remedial and developmental readers lack background knowledge, instructors can increase this knowledge with lessons similar to the constructive theory of literary analysis promoted by Louise Rosenblatt and to college whole language learning recommended by David Caverly.


 

 


What is Reading Comprehension?

Three Points of View

 

            Comprehension is invisible. Its definition, its process, and its product continue to be elusive. Cognitive psychologists, English literature professors, and reading methods professors debate these issues, resulting in a confusion of materials and methods for college developmental reading instructors. 
            Cognitive psychologists argue that comprehension is the result of innate intelligence; a student is just born "smart." This view is related to Thorndike's statement that com-prehension is the manipulation of memories (Thorndike, 1917).  Professors in college English departments perceive comprehension along the lines of literary analysis. Their major debate is the source of interpretation. At one end of the continuum are those who feel the analysis should focus on the writer (objective).  At the other extreme are the professors who believe the comprehension  of  the piece of literature

 

 

lies in how the reader feels about the text (subjective).  Reading methods professors have seen reading comprehension from other points of view that run along a continuum from a synthetic skills approach (built on the theory of phonics) to a holistic approach.
            Louise Rosenblatt (1938), an English literature professor, became frustrated with this polarity of theories and contended that comprehension of literature is constructed from a dialogue between writer and reader (constructive). Vygotsky (1978), a linguistics professor, expanded this idea of construction of meaning to include the input of others and the environment (social construction). The result is the class discussion in which the students and professor learn about the writer's background, style, and attitudes in order to interpret the selection in light of what the message contributes to the participants today.

            For example, students may read James Baldwin's story "Tell Me How Long the Train Has Been Gone" (1967).  The experiences of the main character, a boy named Leo, reveal Baldwin's attitudes toward prejudice and segregation as felt during an era of political contention over civil rights laws and the Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education Supreme Court decision declaring "separate is not equal." Therefore, how the reader constructs meaning of the story is critical.
            The whole language approach integrates learning in a unit of study in which the student experiences many relevant subjects. For example, many elementary school teachers develop a popular unit around the Laura Ingalls Wilder novels about life on the prairie.  The unit includes the geography, history, culture, and science of the era and of the location along with the reading of the popular novels. Thus, comprehension is enhanced with background knowledge the students did not have available as prior knowledge.

            Caverly and Peterson (1996) promote a similar whole language approach to expository text for college developmental readers. They guide students through a task with authentic text chapters so the students become aware of the nature of the task and gain control of it. The instructors draw the learners into the task with the students' own personal experiences in a social setting in which students learn from each other.  Caverly and Peterson scaffold the task with informative resources including the Internet until they gradually release the students to full responsibility for the task. They ask students to use word processing to keep a journal in which they write about their prior knowledge before they read, write about their new knowledge after they read, and add a post-journal entry about their developing understanding after they interact with the material and with others. The students also use an outlining software program to learn text structure. Additionally, they communi-cate through e-mail with students at a college in another state about their sustained silent reading.

            College instructors of de-velopmental reading comprehension face a challenge from these three groups - cognitive psychologists, professors of literary analysis, and teacher educators. What is best for these pre-college level readers?
            Most colleges use norm-referenced, standardized, multiple-choice reading comprehension tests to place students in a remedial or developmental level class. In order to make a college level score, they need more background knowledge and more logical analytical skills than other students taking the same test. However, they cannot tap into prior knowledge that does not exist. It is almost impossible for students to make textually and scriptally implicit (inferential) decisions when they don't know about the content and don't know the meanings of the words. Consequently, these students need knowledge of content and of strategies.
    An illustration of this problem is found in the following lines from the lyrics of "Deuce & A Quarter" by New Power Generation (2002):

In my deuce and a quarter feelin' funky funky fine...
And money talk, pusher walk and sleepin' on the politics...
A-havin' it, grabbin' it, tastin' it...

And when U step off, I finally rub your face in it...
So we revert 2 committin' dope, many brothers get hurt
By another brother who don't like salt in his dirt

Trying to answer the following questions about this passage reveals the confusion of not having enough prior knowledge: a) What is the subject? b) What is the main idea? c) According to the author, what is it the problem? d) What is "salt in his dirt?" e) What is a "deuce and a quarter?" f) What is it like to feel "funky fine?" g) Does the author suggest that politics will help solve the problem?

            Reading instructors probe to activate prior knowledge so that the readers will relate the new information to what they already know. However, activating prior knowledge is often not enough for college remedial and developmental level readers because they lack the specified area of background information. In addition, students often do not recognize the vocabulary even though they can sound out the words. Fisher (2001) noted that teachers who initiated a broad change in instruction in an attempt to improve standardized test scores decided they had to include vocabulary instruction because the students scored lower on vocabulary than on any other area of the tests. In other words, they lacked the background knowledge to think and respond to the test items.

            Achievement for All, a RAND research and development program, quotes from Dole, et. al. (1991), from Graves, Cooke, & LaBerge (1983), and from Langer (1984) to say that if students lack the background knowledge to fully understand the text, teachers may use a variety of instructional techniques such as building the necessary background knowledge, introducing key concepts, and clarifying vocabulary.

 

Building Knowledge

 

            Using varied learning activities enhances knowledge of content. Instructors should search the professional journals and conference presentations for these activities. For example, a class can read The Diary of Anne Frank, gather information about World War II, and search for materials about the Jewish communities, economics, and culture in Europe. These students may learn more than the simple ability to retell the story of Anne Frank.

Instructors can search the Internet for web sites devoted to course units that provide new knowledge related to the text. Two excellent sites are WebQuest and The Voice of the Shuttle. They provide links to sample lessons and to sources of information about authors and about topics.

            Students can search the Internet for information related to an assignment. One student reading an essay titled "The Exercise Fix" searched Google.com and found a whole web site devoted to exercise addiction. Another student reading an essay about government and health care written by Malcolm Forbes, Jr., found web pages about Forbes that helped him understand Forbes' point of view on health care.

 

Building Vocabulary

 

 Vocabulary, taught in context, enhances knowledge. Concept mapping is an especially successful tool for social construction of knowledge. Students focus on a word and brainstorm definitions, descriptions, examples, features, and other aspects as they contribute from their personal prior knowledge. Then some students search the dictionary for definitions, roots, prefixes, and suffixes while others search the Internet for applications and elaborations of the concept. The group must then study the concept map and refine it to be relevant to the essay (text).
            Other students may simply keep their personal vocabulary journals related to the essays. They identify unknown words, seek a relevant definition and pronunciation, and incorporate the word in a sentence applicable to the essay.

 

Building a Student  Reading Strategy

 

 Jessie Jackson's article  "The Dream, the Stars, and Dr. King" (1995) is about affirmative action and civil rights including schools, jobs, housing, and medical care, and suggests that if citizens ignore these issues, the government will also. To enable students to comprehend this article, the instructor must build background and vocabulary. Then students take control. First, they must keep a dictionary within reach. Since this is an essay, a good strategy is to skim by reading the introduction, the first sentence in each paragraph, and the conclusion. The purpose is to determine the subject, the thesis, and the pattern of organization.  The next student strategy is to read to mark the details that support the thesis; i.e., Jackson's use of interesting brief events such as the changes in school integration, housing patterns, the professional glass ceiling for minorities, and the careless comments of politicians. To get all this firmly organized in the mind, a group may summarize by social construction of a concept map.

The narrative genre suggests a slight variation of the same strategies. However, the instructor still needs to build background of the era and of the author. For example, students who read "The Black Cat" by Edgar Allan Poe  should consult a dictionary for unfamiliar words.  The common pattern for a story is somewhat similar to that of an essay with an introduction (of the main character, the setting, and the problem), a body (the sequence of events), and a conclusion (the resolution of the problem). Poe startles the reader by telling the end of the story first, but then he goes back in time to tell how the main character is in jail facing  the death penalty.

Because skimming may produce confusion in a story, students should read strategically; i.e., they should read a page, then stop and write a brief notation at the bottom of the page. These marginalia later provide a resource for designing a flow chart of the events in the correct order. 

            Instructors definitely can prepare the underprepared when they make the assumption that ability to succeed in college is not innate; it is learned. As stated in the College Entrance Examination Board's Academic Preparation for College (1983),  instructors can guide students in learning "what college entrants need to know and be able  to do” to succeed   in college (p. 1). Also, instructors  can increase background knowledge with lessons similar to a modified whole language approach in which students learn about the selection instead of just enough to retell it. Finally, instructors can promote the learning of new related vocabulary and  increase use of generic strategies that are learned with enough repetition and success that these strategies transfer to other courses. Our college graduates are there to prove the case.

 

References

 

Baldwin, J. (1967). Tell Me How Long the Train's Been Gone. New York: DialPress.

 

Caverly, D. C. & Peterson, C. L. (1996). Foundations for a Constructivist, Whole Language Approach to Developmental College Reading. NADE Monographs. Retrieved November 11, 2002, from http:// www.nade.net/ documents/Mono96/mono96.5.pdf

 

Dole, J. A., Valencia, S. W., Greer, E. A., & Wardrop, J. L. (1991). Effects of two types of prereading instruction on the comprehension of narrative and expository text. Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 142–159.

 

Fisher, D. (2001). We're moving on up: Creating a school wide literacy effort in an urban high school. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 45(2), 92 - 101.

 

Graves, M. F., Cooke, C. L., & LaBerge, M. J. (1983). Effects of previewing   short    stories.          Reading Research Quarterly, 18, 262–276.

 

Jackson, J. (1995). The dream, the stars, and Dr. King.  In J. Maker & M Lenier (Eds.), College Reading with Active Critical Thinking, Book 2 (pp. 438-440). Belmont:Wadsworth Pub-lishing Company.

 

Langer, J. A. (1984). Examining background knowledge and text compre-hension. Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 468–481.

 

New  Power   Generation (2002). Deuce & a quarter.  Retrieved November  11,  2002,   from   http://www.reallyrics.

com/lyrics/ N007500010015.asp

 

RAND (2002). Achievement for All. Reading for Understanding: Toward an R&D Program in    Reading Compre-hension.  Retrieved   November  17, 2002, from http://www.rand.org/ multi/ achievementforall/reading/readreport.html

 

Rosenblatt, L. (1938). Literature as Exploration. New York: Appleton-Century.

Thorndike, E. (1917). Reading and reasoning: A study of mistakes in paragraph reading.  Journal             of Educa-tional Psychology, 8, 323 - 332.

 

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

 


                                   




 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For further information please contact Dr. Kathryn S. Hawes. l The University of Memphis l Memphis, Tennessee  38152 l  Phone (901) 678-5110 l  kshawes@memphis.edu

 

+ نوشته شده توسط حامد قائمی در Sun 26 Sep 2010 و ساعت 7:21 PM |

 گفتم: خسته‌ام 
گفتی: لاتقنطوا من رحمة الله .:: از رحمت خدا نا امید نشید(زمر/53) ::.

گفتم: هیشکی نمی‌دونه تو دلم چی می‌گذره 
گفتی: 
ان الله یحول بین المرء و قلبه
.:: خدا حائل هست بین انسان و قلبش! (انفال/24) ::.

گفتم: غیر از تو کسی رو ندارم 
گفتی: نحن اقرب الیه من حبل الورید
.:: ما از رگ گردن به انسان نزدیک‌تریم (ق/16) ::.

+ نوشته شده توسط حامد قائمی در Sat 20 Dec 2008 و ساعت 9:12 PM |

Sample Quiz

Sample quiz for the feeling, sensation, perception group (Greek elements: aesth-, esth-, aesthe-, esthe-, aesthesio-, esthesio-, -aesthesia, -esthesia, -aesthetic, -esthetic, et al.) 

Choose the answers which can correctly replace those shown in parenthesis or which match the definitions or statements in the questions. Choose just one answer for each of the ten questions. You will receive a score and, if you choose any incorrect answers, you will also be told which questions have the wrong responses (including those that were left unanswered).

  1. He doesn't accept, as (some who enjoy beauty) proclaim, that good music must include violins. 
    (a) acrodysesthesiacs (b) arthresthesiacs (c) cryesthesiacs (d) anesthesiacs (e) esthetes

  2. The doctor’s examination determined that I have (normal sensory perceptions). 
    (a) hypesthesia (b) hemianesthesia (c) euesthesia (d) hypocryesthesia (e) noseresthesia

  3. She was restricted to a wheelchair because of (the loss of any feeling of bodily motion). 
    (a) algesthesia (b) anesthecinesia (c) kinesthesia (d) myesthesia (e) somatesthesia

  4. The artist was accused of being (void of any perception of good taste) when his paintings went on exhibition.
    (a) inesthetic (b) kinesthetic (c) postanesthetic (d) panesthetic (e) synesthetic

  5. Mary had no perception that the hairs on her arms or head were being touched.
    (a) zonesthesia (b) thigmesthesia (c) trichoesthesia (d) rhinesthesia (e) trichoanesthesia

  6. Having a general feeling of discomfort or illness.
    (a) caumesthesia (b) arthresthesia (c) cacesthesia (d) amyoesthesia (e) apallesthesia

  7. After his exposure to the cold for such a long time, he developed hypothermia and (loss of feeling cold).
    (a) cryesthesia (b) cryptesthesia (c) esthesioderma (d) garlesthesia (e) cryanesthesia

  8. A supersensory talent for seeing things that are not visible to people in general.
    (a) dysthermesthesia (b) cryptesthesia (c) aesthesia (d) acrodyaesthesia (e) acouesthesia

  9. Also known as “color hearing”. 
    (a) coenesthesia (b) caumesthesia (c) chromesthesia (d) dysesthesia (e) oxyesthesia

  10. A feeling of heat (hot flash or flush?) even when the temperature is low. 
    (a) chromesthesia (b) caumesthesia (c) cryanesthesia (d) esthesiogen (e) paresthesia


+ نوشته شده توسط حامد قائمی در Wed 17 Dec 2008 و ساعت 4:44 PM |

TOEFL Vocabulary Test (40 Questions)

Top of Form

Return to Vocabulary Test

 

1.

 

v. to restate the meaning of a passage in other words

 

alienate

 

paraphrase

 

extraneous

 

protuberant

 

2.

 

n. a feeling of hatred

 

animus

 

delectable

 

genesis

 

effete

 

3.

 

n. something taken for granted; going beyond proper bounds

 

presumption

 

poignant

 

disparity

 

imminent

 

4.

 

adj. pretending to be religious

 

bereave

 

convivial

 

sanctimonious

 

arbiter

 

5.

 

n. a speech by one person

 

nautical

 

monologue

 

abrogate

 

diverting

 

6.

 

adj. sneeringly distrustful of the good motives or conduct of others

 

cynical

 

academic

 

admonish

 

respite

 

7.

 

v. to gain an advantage by the use of trick to evade by the use of deception; to go around

 

soporific

 

poignant

 

chicanery

 

circumvent

 

8.

 

v. to pierce through with a pointed instrument

 

impale

 

tenet

 

extemporaneous

 

ingenious

 

9.

 

adj. accidental

 

vanquish

 

fortuitous

 

gesticulate

 

stoic

 

10.

 

adj. understood by only a select few

 

quash

 

recapitulate

 

hovel

 

esoteric

 

11.

 

adj. of, or pertaining to, the world, as contrasted with the spirit

 

dictum

 

garnish

 

feign

 

mundane

 

12.

 

v. to make gestures, or indicate feelings by motions

 

retrieve

 

abdicate

 

imprecation

 

gesticulate

 

13.

 

adj. irresponsible, eccentric; lacking a fixed purpose erratic behavior

 

craven

 

erratic

 

accord

 

apathy

 

14.

 

n. confused, unintelligible, meaningless talk; special vocabulary used only by members of a group or trade

 

deplete

 

meander

 

jargon

 

flamboyant

 

15.

 

v. to soil or dirty

 

besmirch

 

venerable

 

cynical

 

diffident

 

16.

 

n. employment entailing little or no responsibility or labor

 

fictitious

 

deluge

 

waive

 

sinecure

 

17.

 

n. misfortune

 

sallow

 

insatiable

 

expurgate

 

adversity

 

18.

 

adj. to plead or argue against a certain course of action

 

circumspect

 

deprecate

 

credulous

 

low

 

19.

 

adj. swollen, inflated; using big or high-sounding words

 

kaleidoscopic

 

alacrity

 

delectable

 

turgid

 

20.

 

n. scarcity

 

noisome

 

dearth

 

antithesis

 

sultry

 

21.

 

adj. flimsy and cheap

 

sleazy

 

tremulous

 

untenable

 

inscrutable

 

22.

 

adj. moderate in the use of food or drink

 

creditable

 

zealous

 

benevolent

 

abstemious

 

23.

 

v. to prevent (the attainment of an object); to defeat or render ineffectual

 

consecrate

 

frustrate

 

punitive

 

condone

 

24.

 

v. to express sympathy with another in sorrow, pain, or misfortune

 

condole

 

attribute

 

entreat

 

dictum

 

25.

 

v. to refuse or reject with contempt

 

spurn

 

pensive

 

depreciate

 

effete

 

26.

 

adj. innumerable

 

dynamic

 

immaculate

 

myriad

 

feasible

 

27.

 

adv. with one's identity concealed

 

quash

 

malicious

 

dictum

 

incognito

 

28.

 

adj. wicked; hateful

 

accord

 

sultry

 

heinous

 

depraved

 

29.

 

adj. industrious

 

protuberant

 

inhibit

 

exultation

 

assiduous

 

30.

 

adj. very heavy; clumsy

 

ponderous

 

obtrusive

 

apprehensive

 

creditable

 

31.

 

adj. quick to find fault about trifles

 

captious

 

rudimentary

 

idiosyncrasy

 

vicarious

 

32.

 

v. to do speedily; to send off

 

vanquish

 

congenial

 

blight

 

dispatch

 

33.

 

n. conversation which is amusing and not serious

 

panegyric

 

banter

 

engender

 

dissolute

 

34.

 

adj. spirited; ardent

 

gregarious

 

sacrosanct

 

fervid

 

impostor

 

35.

 

n. burden; duty

 

extirpate

 

onus

 

condone

 

awry

 

36.

 

adj. serving as a model; commendable

 

condign

 

exemplary

 

asseverate

 

utilitarian

 

37.

 

adj. wise; shrewd

 

sally

 

egregious

 

emissary

 

sagacious

 

38.

 

v. to give up claim to

 

machiavellian

 

corpulent

 

abdicate

 

apprise

 

39.

 

v. to penetrate and understand

 

stringent

 

fathom

 

archetype

 

tantamount

 

40.

 

n. an opinion held in opposition to the traditional view

 

ingenious

 

lavish

 

exodus

 

heresy

+ نوشته شده توسط حامد قائمی در Thu 3 Apr 2008 و ساعت 10:49 AM |

Wild Children

Welcome! This unit contains the following materials:

 

+ نوشته شده توسط حامد قائمی در Mon 14 Jan 2008 و ساعت 5:13 PM |

Free IELTS exam preparation can be difficult to find on the Internet. The IELTS (International English Language Testing System) test provides an evaluation of English for those who wish to study or train in English. It is very similar to the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) required by North American universities and colleges. IELTS is a jointly managed test by the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations, British Council and IDP Education Australia. The test is accepted by many professional organizations in Australia and New Zealand including: the New Zealand Immigration Service, the Australian Department of Immigration. If you are interested in studying and / or training in Australia or New Zealand, this is the test best adapted to your qualification needs.

We have gathered together the best of the free IELTS exam preparation materials. Check them out for yourself. (If you find any more sites you think we should add or if you find any bad links then email us at the address listed on the bottom of this page.) 

 

Easy Reading Exercises: Hunting Whales
Nature Sounds
Timber or Trees?
Tuna Dolphins
Simon's Birthday Present
Christmas Present
Peter the Teacher
Two Sisters and a Cat
Volcanoes by the Sea
Fight Pollution
Milk Prices
5 stories about Nasreddin
Computer Virus
Computers in the Classroom
Hate Crimes
Polics Find Drugs
Abortion Pill
Assisted Suicide
Organ Donation
Teen Suicide
Lookign for a Job

 

 

Intermediate Reading Exercises:
Earthquakes in Japanese schools
The Death Car
The Choking Dog
Hiker
The Carpet Fitter
The American Pepper
The Donkey and the Grasshoper
The Father and his Sons
The Kingdom of the Lion
The Musical Fisherman
The Tortoise and the Hare
The Thirsty Pigeon
The Great Depression

 

 

Advanced Reading Exercises: Pulp Fiction
Repression in Burma
Earthquakes in Japan
Volcanoes
Dinosaurs
Lawrence of Arabia
The Great Depression
Japanese History
The Century of Changes
Civilisation of China
Wild Children
Einstein
Dalai Lama
Computers and Girls
Hackers Flood Websites
The Internet
Eye Charts
The Future of Communications
Internet Watchdog
The View from Space
New Ways to Fly
Christmas in the UK
Sporting Fever
Divorce
The Malay Archipelago

 

 

Speed Reading: Speed Reading

 

 

Writing Argumentative Essays: Occasions for Argumentative Essays
Writing Argumentative Essays

 



Publishing Company Downloads: Publishing company downloads 


Listening part 
http://www.esl-lab.com (very good site) 

+ نوشته شده توسط حامد قائمی در Mon 14 Jan 2008 و ساعت 5:6 PM |

IELTS FREE DOWNLOADS

1) IELTS Speaking Topics (2 Pages)

2) IELTS Writing Topics(5 Pages) 

3) IELTS Writing Lists(46 Pages) 

4) Students Writing Samples(42 Pages) 

5) Plague words or Phrases(2 Pages) 

6) IELTS Essays(2 Pages) 

7) IELTS Listening by Francisco Carrizo (8 Pages) New 

8) Sample marking sheet for IELTS writing

task 2 by Francisco Carrizo (1 page)New

9) Academic Reading IELTS(11  Pages) 

10) More IELTS speaking topics (web page) 

11) Speaking Exam 

12) Speaking Test Samples # 1 

13) Speaking Test Free # 2 

14) Common connective words

 (important to use connectives)

15) IELTS Writing Task 1 July 2001  

(1page)

16) Avoid Language Bias (article web page)

+ نوشته شده توسط حامد قائمی در Sat 12 Jan 2008 و ساعت 9:4 PM |